Dogs can be conditioned in two ways to learn new behaviors.
Through involuntary learning: in this case, a first, neutral stimulus is linked to a second stimulus so that they eventually get the same stimulus value. The Russian behavioural researcher Pavlov laid the foundation for this learning method.
Through voluntary learning: this way of learning is entirely based on rewarding desirable behaviour and punishing undesirable behaviour. The American psychologist Skinner laid the foundation for this way of learning. This assumes that behavior, coupled with positive feelings, will occur more and more. Behavior, coupled with negative feelings, will occur less and less.

Involuntary learning.
If you want to teach the dog to sit, the word "sit" (first stimulus) doesn't mean anything to him, he really doesn't understand what is expected of him.
However, if you say "sit" and push directly on his buttocks (second stimulus), the dog will, after some time, understand what the intention is. The first stimulus (the word "sit") is given the same value as the second stimulus, the nudge.
Research has shown that it is important that stimulus 1 is given just before stimulus 2, otherwise it will not work properly. After a while, a lasting combination is made and the dog also sits down at the command "sit". A dog is a creature of habit. By repeating a certain exercise over and over again, it eventually becomes automatic (with daily practice, after about six weeks) When the time comes, he sinks, without help or reward, almost automatically through his legs to sit on his butt after the command "sit".

The nudge on the buttocks is often experienced as negative by the dog, nowadays we teach the dog the sitting exercise in a positive
way. When we teach him, we let him chase a kibble or toy in a certain way to make him sit.

Voluntary learning.
If the owner sees that the dog is planning to sit, he quickly gives him the command "sit", and at the same time that his butt touches the ground, he is enthusiastically rewarded with both a kibble and the voice "brááááf". This gives him a pleasant feeling. If this is repeated for some time, the boss can start with the command "sit", because he knows that it is now a fun exercise and that it gives a pleasant feeling. Always reward together with the voice, it will then have the same reward value as the kibble.

In the beginning (learning phase), the dog is rewarded every time after performing a new exercise. If he always performs the exercise perfectly (mastery phase), then he will be variably rewarded over time to keep the tension going. Research has shown that if a dog knows the exercise well, the reward has more value if it is given once in a while, rather than every time after the behavior performed. In practice, a certain exercise is learned with help (chasing the kibble or toy) and then the reward follows (pleasant feeling). By combining both learning principles, the dog learns even faster.....

Attention from the dog to the owner is of course very important if he wants to teach him a certain exercise. Without attention, the dog is busy with its own affairs and is not accessible to its owner. Undesirable behaviour is combined with an unpleasant feeling, e.g. by startling him. If he is in the room pulling a plant out of the planter, throw something at him that makes noise and he will be startled (unpleasant feeling). He also has the idea that he is being punished on the spot by the plant itself. If you, as the leader, confirm this fear by comforting him, he knows for sure that it is a scary plant. You can confirm this fear by comforting him, because it works to your advantage, you want to stop the dog from this behavior. Sometimes one scare is not enough, sometimes it needs to be repeated once or twice, depending on the dog's motivation and the degree of fright he is experiencing. If he is successful from time to time, he will continue to do so (variable remuneration).

What is very important is the moment of reward and punishment. If the reward or punishment comes a little too early or too late, the wrong behavior is reinforced. Reward and punishment must follow within half a second of the behavior performed, so almost at the same time. As with voluntary learning, a strong reward works better than a weak one, and a severe punishment (considering the dog's sensitivity !!!!) has much more effect than a gentle "foei".

How You Should Never Punish.........

Punish your dog as little as possible but try to reward him for positive behavior..........
However, if he goes too far, you should never:

- Continue to punish if the dog surrenders.

- Punishment afterwards

- Punishments in order, ..... This is his safe place where he should feel comfortable.

- Sending to his place for punishment.....

Punishment must come through, but must not make the dog afraid of the one who is punishing him.

The dog can also learn a behavior itself by imitating other, usually higher-ranking dogs. This can be both negative and positive. Young dogs that are used in a flock of sheep learn a lot from the already experienced, older dogs. One negative form occurs when the mother dog is anxious or nervous and the puppies adopt this behavior. All the more reason not to breed with frightened dogs.....

The dog also learns through mood transfer, the dog notices the excitement or fear of the owner and it is taken over (e.g. owner is afraid of a certain dog, afraid of thunderstorms).

People are still studying dog behaviour, and in recent years research has developed at a rapid pace, also in terms of learning